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Source code on GitHub


@energyweb/exchange-io-erc1888 performs three main functions:

  • Monitors for deposits of ERC-1888 Certificate volumes into the Exchange wallet where they are then active on the Exchange
  • Executes withdrawals from the Exchange to a user's Blockchain account
  • Executes transfers to a user's Exchange Deposit account.

You can read more about the ERC-1888 in the context of Origin here.

This package is a NestJS application that uses ethers.js to interact with the smart contracts on blockchain. It is tightly coupled with the Exchange module.

The package has two core NestJS modules:


Source code on GitHub

The deposit-watcher handles the transfer of assets to the Exchange wallet. Once an EAC is in the Exchange wallet, it is active on the Exchange, meaning it can be posted for sale, transferred to another Exchange Deposit address, or claimed.

The deposit-watcher service sets up a listener for transfers (deposits) of Energy Attribute Certificates (EACs) from the Registry to the Exchange wallet, and emits events to the Exchange module so that corresponding assets can be updated in their respective repositories. The deposited EAC is then posted for sale as an ask on the Exchange.

When the deposit-watcher module initializes, The service does the following to set up the deposit listener:

  1. Creates an interface of the ERC-1888 token (the token standard for EACs) in order to interact with the contract:
private tokenInterface = new ethers.utils.Interface(Contracts.RegistryExtendedJSON.abi);


See the ethers.js documentation for the Interface class here

  1. Initializes an RPC provider. This allows for communication with the Energy Web Chain through JSON-RPC request and response:
this.provider = getProviderWithFallback(...web3ProviderUrl.split(';'));


  1. Instantiates the instance of the Registry from which we are monitoring events:
  this.registry = new Contract(


  1. Defines the "topic" or event that the service needs to listen for:
        const topics = [
  1. Provides an event listener. Each time the specified event occurs, the processEvent method is called with the event:
                address: this.registryAddress,
            (event: providers.Log) => this.processEvent(event)

The processEvent method uses the event's transaction hash to retrieve the transaction receipt:

const receipt = await this.provider.waitForTransaction(transactionHash);


The event log and the receipt are used to create the CreateDeposit Data Transfer Object (DTO). Once created, the event bus publishes a DepositDiscoveredEvent with the DTO:

this.eventBus.publish(new DepositDiscoveredEvent(deposit));


The event's handler in the Exchange package stores the deposit in the Deposit Repository and posts the deposited certificate for sale as an ask on the exchange.


Source code on GitHub

Withdrawing EACs from the Exchange

As long as EACs are not currently in an active ask (i.e. posted for sale) on the Exchange, they can be withdrawn from the Exchange to the user's Blockchain account. Users can choose to only withdraw parts of the EAC volume while keeping a part of the volume on the exchange. Once the certificates are withdrawn from the Exchange, the asset amounts in the user’s Exchange account are reduced accordingly.

Any EAC volumes that are in an active ask (posted for sale) are locked so that they can be sent to a buyer once a match is made. A user can cancel an ask, and then withdraw those volumes from the exchange, but the ask must be cancelled first.

Organizations can define any blockchain address to release the tokens to their withdrawal requests. In the user interface, this is known as the Blockchain Account Address. If successful, the EAC tokens are transferred from the Exchange wallet to this blockchain address. The EAC is now no longer in the custody of the Exchange operator but is owned by the user on-chain. The same EACs now would have to be re-deposited to be traded on the Exchange again.

In the application, withdrawals are initiated from the WithdrawalRequestedEventHandler and ClaimRequestedEventHandler. Both of these even handlers are triggered from events in the Exchange module's transfer service (WithdrawalRequestedEvent and ClaimRequestedEvent).

The Withdrawal Processor Service sets the wallet using the Exchange Wallet private key. This is the private key for the Exchange wallet. The wallet is set as the active user in the Blockchain Properties object:

const walletPrivateKey = this.configService.get<string>('EXCHANGE_WALLET_PRIV');
 this.wallet = new Wallet(walletPrivateKey, provider);

this.blockchainProperties = {
    web3: provider,
    registry: Contracts.factories.RegistryExtendedFactory.connect(
    issuer: Contracts.factories.IssuerFactory.connect(issuerAddress, this.wallet),
    activeUser: this.wallet

        `Initializing transfer processor for ${this.blockchainProperties.registry.address} using ${this.wallet.address}`


The withdrawal processor uses the Certificate facade to access and interact with the certificate on the blockchain:

  const certificate = await new Certificate(


The transfer request is piped through the transfer queue, which is facilitated by RxJs Subject Observables

Depending on the transfer's direction, the service uses the methods from the Certificate facade to:

  • Withdrawal a certificate from the exchange (i.e. from the Exchange wallet address) to the organization's Blockchain Acount Address
  • Transfer a certificate to another blockchain address
  • Claim (retire) a certificate
        try {
            const certificate = await new Certificate(

            if (
                transfer.direction === TransferDirection.Withdrawal ||
                transfer.direction === TransferDirection.Send
            ) {
                result = await certificate.transfer(
            } else if (transfer.direction === TransferDirection.Claim) {
                result = await certificate.claim(
                        beneficiary: transfer.address,
                        location: '',
                        countryCode: '',
                        periodStartDate: '',
                        periodEndDate: '',
                        purpose: 'GHG Accounting'
            } else {
                throw Error(`Unable to process transfer with direction ${transfer.direction}.`);

            await this.transferService.setAsUnconfirmed(id, result.hash);

            const receipt = await result.wait();

            await this.handleConfirmation(transfer, receipt);
        } catch (error) {
            this.logger.error(`[Transfer ${id}] Error processing transfer: ${error.message}`);
            this.logger.error(`[Transfer ${id}] Error trace: ${JSON.stringify(error)}`);